Timeline and imperial coinage
of Vietnam


Thuan D.Luc, Vladimir Belyaev 26 September, 1998
last updates 29-Apr-04


       VIETNAM - the nation is located in Southeast Asia west of the South China Sea. The word VIET means 'to traverse' or 'the name of a group of people lived in the delta of Hong river'. The word NAM means 'the South'. VIETNAM means 'to traverse to the South' or 'the Viet people in the South'. Vietnam has its country name changed throughout its history as follows.
        The coins listed below are only the imperial Vietnamese copper issues in the Chinese cash style.
        Coins with one of the listed below legends, made from non-copper metal, are non-regular issues (for example, common Minh Mang zinc coin). Also exists a lot of non-regular legends of copper coins.
        All non-regular issues will be the subject of future investigations.
Designations:
    - extremely rare
    - very rare
    - quite rare
    Other coins are common.
    - coin exist, but not mentioned in the historical chronicles
    - coin mentioned in the historical chronicles, but had never been seen
    - there is Chinese coin with the same legend
    - click to read coin description.


Name of Nation
Period of nation
      NAME of Dynasty
  • Name of Emperor / Leader
    Years of reign
Reign title
Reign years
Coins legend
Rarity
       Comments.

VAN LANG     Wen Lang
2879 BC - 258 BC
       Hong Pang        HONG BANG DYNASTY
  • Kinh Duong Vuong
  • Lac Long Quan (Lac Dragon Lord)
  • 18 Hung Vuong (18 Hung kings)




       The ancient Annals of Vietnam recorded that Hung King named his realm as Van Lang and establised his capital in Phong Chau (Province of Son Tay, North Vietnam now).

AU LAC     Ou Luo 257 BC - 207 BC
       Shu     THUC DYNASTY
  • An Duong Vuong (King An Duong)




       Thuc Phan (King An Duong), the ruler of a kingdom named Nam Cuong (Southern frontier) comprising Cao Bang in North Vietnam and part of Kuang-hsi of China. Thuc dethroned the 18th Hung King, conquered Van Lang and founded Au Lac.

NAM VIET     Nan Yue
(Nan Yueh)
208 BC - 111 BC
       Zhao    TRIEU DYNASTY
  • Trieu Da
    208 BC - 136 BC
  • Trieu Van Vuong
    136 BC - 124 BC
  • Trieu Minh Vuong
    124 BC - 112 BC
  • Trieu Ai Vuong
    112 BC - 112 BC




  • Trieu Duong Vuong
    111 BC - 111 BC
Canh Duc
Jing De



       When Ch'in Emperor Shih Huang Ti who ruled the Northern of China and went down to the South to conquer the "Hundred Yueh" (Bach Viet) died, Ch'in Commissioner Trieu Da defeated King An Duong, gained control of Yueh lands (Kuang Tung, Kuang-hsi) and founded Nam Viet which was from Hsi River of China to Ma river of Au lac.

GIAO CHI     Jiao Zhi
(Intertwined feet)
111 BC - 202 AD
CUU CHAN     Jiu Zhen
(Nine Verities)

NHAT NAM     Ri Nan
(South of the Sun)

       XiHan    UNDER CHINESE WESTERN HAN DYNASTY
  • Trung Sisters




       Han defeated Trieu and organized the lands of Nam Viet into 9 prefectures. Prefectures of Giao Chi, Cuu Chan and Nhat Nam were in Viet Nam, the others were in China.

GIAO CHAU     Jiao Zhou
(Giao Province)
203 - 544 AD
       DongHan    -    Wu    UNDER CHINESE EASTERN HAN & WU (THREE KINGDOMS) DYNASTIES
  • Lady Trieu




       Jin   -    Song   -    Qi   -    Liang   -    Sui    UNDER CHINESE JIN - SONG - QI - LIANG - SUI DYNASTIES
       In 203 AD Han changed the name of the southern part of Nam Viet to Giao Chau. Then in 226 AD Wu divided Giao Chau into two parts: from the north of Hop Pho (Ho-p'u of Kuang-hsi) up was called Kuang Province and from the south of Hop Pho was called Giao Chau.
      Finally, in 264 AD Wu reorganized Nam Viet's land, Giao Chau was comprised of Hop Pho, Giao Chi, Cuu Chan and Nhat Nam; Kuang Province was comprised of Nan hai, Ts'ang wu and Yu lin.


VAN XUAN     Wan Chun
(Ten thousands Spring Times)
544 - 603 AD
  • Ly Nam De
Thien Duc
Tian De



       In 541 Ly Nam De drove Liang Governor of Giao Chau out of the province, proclaimed himself the emperor of Nam Viet and published the name of his realm as Van Xuan.
  • Trieu Viet Vuong
  • Ly Phat Tu




       Ly was defeated by Sui dynasty. Van Xuan was under Chinese Sui dynasty.

AN NAM DO HO PHU     An Nan Du Hu Fu
(The Protectorate of Annam)
603 - 909 AD
       In 679 Chinese dynasty Tang changed the name of Giao Chau to An Nam Do Ho Phu. An Nam means Pacified South. In 938 Ngo Quyen defeated the Southern Hans army with the Battle of Bach Dang River and opened an era of independence.
       Sui   -    Tang   -    Liang   -    Nan Han    UNDER CHINESE SUI - TANG - Later LIANG - Southern HAN DYNASTIES
  • Mai Thuc Loan
  • Phung Hung
    (The Great Father and Mother King)
  • Khuc Thua Du
  • Khuc Thua My
  • Khuc Hao
  • Duong Dien Nghe
  • Ngo Quyen





DAI CO VIET     Da Ju Yue 968 - 1054 AD
       Dai is a Chinese word Ta meaning Great, Co is a Vietnamese word meaning Great also. The Emperor could change reign title several times.
       Ding     DINH DYNASTY

  • Dinh Bo Linh
    970-979
Thai Binh
Tai Ping
970-979 Thai Binh Hung Bao
Tai Ping Xing Bao

  • Dinh Phe De




       Li     LE DYNASTY

  • Le Dai Hanh
    980-1005
Thien Phuc
Tian Fu
980-988 Thien Phuc Tran Bao
Tian Fu Zhen / Control Bao

Hung Thong
Xing Tong
989-994

Ung Thien
Ying Tian
994-1005

  • Le Trung Tong
    1005-1005
Long Viet
Long / Dragon Yue / Go beyond
1005-1005

  • Le Long Dinh
    1005-1009
Ung Thien
Ying Tian
1006-1008

Canh Thuy
Jing Rui
1008-1009

       Li     LY DYNASTY

  • Ly Thai To
    1010-1028
Thuan Thien
Shun Tian
1010-1028 Thuan Thien Dai Bao
Shun Tian Da Bao

  • Ly Thai Tong
    1028-1054
Thien Thanh
Tian Cheng
1028-1033

Thong Thuy
Tong Rui
1034-1038

Can Phu Huu Dao
Qian / Be creative Fu You Dao
1039-1041 Can Phu Nguyen Bao
Qian / Be creative Fu Yuan Bao

Minh Dao
Ming Dao
1042-1043 Minh Dao Nguyen Bao
Ming Dao Yuan Bao

Thien Cam Thanh Vu
Tian Gan Sheng Wu
1044-1048 Thien Cam Nguyen Bao
Tian Gan Yuan Bao

Sung Hung Dai Bao
Chong Xing Da Bao
1049-1054


DAI VIET     Da Yue 1054 - 1413 AD
       Li     LY DYNASTY

  • Ly Thanh Tong
    1054-1072
Long Thuy Thai Binh
Long Rui / Jade tablet of insignium Tai Ping
1054-1058

Chuong Thanh Gia Khanh
Zhang Sheng Jia Kang
1059-1065

Long Chuong Thien Tu
Long Zhang Tian Si / To succeed to
1066-1067

Thien Huong Bao Tuong
Tian Kuang Bao Xiang
1068-1068

Than Vu
Shen Wu
1069-1072

  • Ly Nhan Tong
    1072-1127
Thai Ninh
Tai Ning
1072-1075

Anh Vu Chieu Thang
Ying Wu Zhao Sheng
1076-1084

Quang Huu
Guang You / Assist
1085-1091

Hoi Phu
Hoi / Come together Fu
1092-1101

Long Phu
Long Fu
1101-1119

Hoi Tuong Dai Khanh
Hoi / Come together Xiang Da Kang
1110-1119

Thien Phu Due Vu
Tian Fu Rui / Perspicicacious Wu
1120-1126

Thien Phu Khanh Tho
Tian Fu Kang Shou
1127-1127

  • Ly Than Tong
    1128-1137
Thien Thuan
Tian Shun
1128-1132

Thien Chuong Bao Tu
Tian Zhang Bao Si / To succeed to
1133-1138

  • Ly Anh Tong
    1138-1175
Thieu Minh
Shao Ming
1138-1139

Dai Dinh
Da Ding
1140-1162 Dai Dinh Thong Bao
Da Ding Tong Bao

Chinh Long Bao Ung
Zheng Long Bao Ying
1163-1173

Thien Cam Chi Bao
Tian Gan Zhi Bao
1174-1175

  • Ly Cao Tong
    1176-1210
Trinh Phu
Zhen Fu
1176-1185

Thien Tu Gia Thuy
Tian Zi / Property Jia Rui
1186-1201 Thien Tu Nguyen Bao
Tian Zi / Property Yuan Bao

Thien Gia Bao Huu
Tian Jia Bao You
1202-1204

Tri Binh Long Ung
Zhi / Govern Ping Long Ung
1205-1210 Tri Binh Thong Bao
Zhi / Govern Ping Tong Bao

  • Ly Hue Tong
    1211-1224
Kien Gia
Jian / Establish Jia
1211-1224

  • Ly Chieu Hoang
    1224-1225
Thien Chuong Huu Dao
Tian Zhang You Dao
1224-1225

       Chen     TRAN DYNASTY

  • Tran Thai Tong
    1225-1258
Kien Trung
Jian Zhong / Middle
1225-1231 Kien Trung Thong Bao
Jian Zhong / Middle Tong Bao

Thien Ung Chinh Binh
Tian Ying Zheng Ping
1232-1250 Chinh Binh Thong Bao
Zheng Ping Tong Bao

Nguyen Phong
Yuan Feng
1251-1258 Nguyen Phong Thong Bao
Yuan Feng Tong Bao

  • Tran Thanh Tong
    1258-1278
Thieu Long
Shao Long
1258-1272

Bao Phu
Bao Fu
1273-1278

  • Tran Nhan Tong
    1279-1293
Thieu Bao
Shao Bao
1279-1284

Trung Hung
Zhong Xing
1285-1293

  • Tran Anh Tong
    1293-1314
Hung Long
Xing Long
1293-1314

  • Tran Minh Tong
    1314-1329
Dai Khanh
Da Qing
1314-1323

Khai Thai
Kai Tai
1324-1329 Khai Thai Thong Bao
Kai Tai Tong Bao

  • Tran Hien Tong
    1329-1341
Khai Huu
Kai You
1329-1341

  • Tran Du Tong
    1341-1369
Thieu Phong
Shao Feng
1341-1357 Thieu Phong Nguyen Bao
Shao Feng Yuan Bao

Thieu Phong Thong Bao
Shao Feng Tong Bao

Dai Tri
Da Zhi
1358-1369 Dai Tri Thong Bao
Da Zhi Tong Bao

Dai Tri Nguyen Bao
Da Zhi Yuan Bao

  • Duong Nhat Le
    1369-1370
Dai Dinh
Da Ding
1369-1370 Dai Dinh Thong Bao
Da Ding Tong Bao

  • Tran Nghe Tong
    1370-1372
Thieu Khanh
Shao Qing
1370-1372 Thieu Khanh Thong Bao
Shao Qing Tong Bao

  • Tran Due Tong
    1372-1377
Long Khanh
Long Qing
1372-1377

  • Tran Phe De
    1377-1388
Xuong Phu
Chang Fu
1377-1388

  • Tran Thuan De
    1388-1398
Quang Thai
Guang Tai
1388-1398

  • Tran Thieu De
    1398-1400
Kien Tan
Jian Xin
1398-1400

  • Tran De Ngoi
    1407-1407
Hung Khanh
Xing Qing
1407-1407

  • Tran Quy Khoang
    1409-1413
Trung Quang
Zhong Quang
1409-1413


DAI NGU     Da Yu 1400 - 1407 AD
       Hu     HO DYNASTY

  • Ho Quy Ly
    1400-1401
Thanh Nguyen
Sheng Yuan
1400-1401 Thanh Nguyen Thong Bao
Sheng Yuan Tong Bao

  • Ho Han Thuong
    1401-1407
Thieu Thanh
Shao Cheng
1401-1402 Han Nguyen Thong Bao
Han Yuan Tong Bao

Khai Dai
Kai Da
1403-1407


AN NAM     An Nan 1407 - 1427 AD
       Ming    UNDER CHINESE MING DYNASTY

       Ho was defeated by Chinese Ming dynasty.

DAI VIET     Da Yue 1428 - 1802 AD
       Hou Li     LATER LE DYNASTY

  • Le Thai To
    1428-1433
Thuan Thien
Shun Tian
1428-1433 Thuan Thien Nguyen Bao
Shun Tian Yuan Bao

  • Le Thai Tong
    1434-1442
Thieu Binh
Shao Ping
1434-1439 Thieu Binh Thong Bao
Shao Ping Tong Bao

Thieu Binh Phong Bao
Shao Ping Feng Bao

Thieu Binh Thanh Bao
Shao Ping Sheng Bao

Dai Bao
Da Bao
1440-1442 Dai Bao Thong Bao
Da Bao Tong Bao

  • Le Nhan Tong
    1443-1459
Thai Hoa
Tai He
1443-1453 Thai Hoa Thong Bao
Tai He Tong Bao

Dien Ninh
Yan Ning
1454-1459 Dien Ninh Thong Bao
Yan Ning Tong Bao

  • Le Nghi Dan
    1459-1460
Thien Hung
Tian Xing
1459-1460 Thien Hung Thong Bao
Tian Xing Tong Bao

  • Le Thanh Tong
    1460-1497
Quang Thuan
Guang Shun
1460-1469 Quang Thuan Thong Bao
Guang Shun Tong Bao

Hong Duc
Hong De
1470-1497 Hong Duc Thong Bao
Hong De Tong Bao

  • Le Hien Tong
    1497-1504
Canh Thong
Jing Tong
1497-1504 Canh Thong Thong Bao
Jing Tong Tong Bao

  • Le Tuc Tong
    1505-1505
Thai Trinh
Tai Zhen
1505-1505

  • Le Uy Muc
    1505-1509
Doan Khanh
Duan Qing
1505-1509 Doan Khanh Thong Bao
Duan Qing Tong Bao

  • Le Tuong Duc
    1510-1516
Hong Thuan
Hong Shun
1510-1516 Hong Thuan Thong Bao
Hong Shun Tong Bao

  • Le Chieu Tong
    1516-1526
Quang Thieu
Guang Shao
1516-1526 Quang Thieu Thong Bao
Guang Shao Tong Bao

  • Le Cung Hoang
    1522-1527
Thong Nguyen
Tong Yuan
1522-1527

  • Le Trang Tong
    1533-1548
Nguyen Hoa
Yuan He
1533-1548 Nguyen Hoa Thong Bao
Yuan He Tong Bao

  • Le Trung Tong
    1548-1556
Thuan Binh
Shun Ping
1548-1556

  • Le Anh Tong
    1556-1573
Thien Huu
Tian You
1557-1557

Chinh Tri
Zheng Zhi
1558-1571

Hong Phuc
Hong Fu
1572-1573

  • Le The Tong
    1573-1599
Gia Thai
Jia Tai
1573-1599 Gia Thai Thong Bao
Jia Tai Tong Bao

Quang Hung
Guang Xing
1578-1599

  • Le Kinh Tong
    1599-1619
Than Duc
Shen De
1600-1600

Hoang Dinh
Hong Ding
1601-1619

  • Le Than Tong
    1619-1643
Vinh To
Yong Zuo
1619-1628

Duc Long
De Long
1629-1634

Duong Hoa
Yang He
1635-1643

  • Le Chan Tong
    1643-1649
Phuc Thai
Fu Tai
1643-1649

  • Le Than Tong
    1649-1662
Khan Duc
Qing De
1649-1652

Thinh Duc
Cheng De
1653-1657

Vinh Tho
Yong Shou
1658-1661 Vinh Tho Thong Bao
Yong Shou Tong Bao

Van Khanh
Wan Qing
1662-1662

  • Le Huyen Tong
    1663-1671
Canh Tri
Jing Zhi
1663-1671

  • Le Gia Tong
    1672-1675
Duong Duc
Yang De
1672-1673

Duc Nguyen
De Yuan
1674-1675

  • Le Hi Tong
    1676-1705
Vinh Tri
Yong Zhi
1676-1680 Vinh Tri Thong Bao
Yong Zhi Tong Bao
Vinh Tri Nguyen Bao

Yong Zhi Yuan Bao
Vinh Tri Chi Bao
Yong Zhi Zhi Bao

Chinh Hoa
Zheng He
1680-1705 Chinh Hoa Thong Bao
Zheng He Tong Bao

  • Le Du Tong
    1706-1729
Vinh Thinh
Yong Cheng
1705-1719 Vinh Thinh Thong Bao
Yong Cheng Tong Bao

Bao Thai
Bao Tai
1720-1729 Bao Thai Thong Bao
Bao Tai Tong Bao

  • Le Duy Phuong
    1729-1732
Vinh Khanh
Yong Qing
1729-1732

  • Le Thuan Tong
    1732-1735
Long Duc
Long De
1732-1735

  • Le Y Tong
    1735-1740
Vinh Huu
Yong You
1735-1740

  • Le Hien Tong
    1740-1786
Canh Hung
Jing Xing
1740-1786 Canh Hung Thong Bao
Jing Xing Tong Bao

Canh Hung Trung Bao
Jing Xing Zhong Bao

Canh Hung Chi Bao
Jing Xing Zhi Bao

Canh Hung Vinh Bao
Jing Xing Yong Bao

Canh Hung Thai Bao
Jing Xing Tai Bao

Canh Hung Cu Bao
Jing Xing Ju Bao

Canh Hung Trong Bao
Jing Xing Zhong Bao

Canh Hung Tuyen Bao
Jing Xing Quan Bao

Canh Hung Thuan Bao
Jing Xing Shun Bao

Canh Hung Chinh Bao
Jing Xing Zheng Bao

Canh Hung Noi Bao
Jing Xing Nei Bao

Canh Hung Dung Bao
Jing Xing Yong Bao

Canh Hung Lai Bao
Jing Xing Lai Bao

Canh Hung Dai Bao
Jing Xing Da Bao


  • Le Man De
    1786-1788
Chieu Thong
Zhao Tong
1786-1788 Chieu Thong Thong Bao
Zhao Tong Tong Bao

       Mo     MAC DYNASTY

  • Mac Dang Dung
    1527-1529
Minh Duc
Ming De
1527-1529 Minh Duc Thong Bao
Ming De Tong Bao

Minh Duc Nguyen Bao
Ming De Yuan Bao

  • Mac Dang Doanh
    1530-1540
Dai Chinh
Da Zheng
1530-1540 Dai Chinh Thong Bao
Da Zheng Tong Bao

  • Mac Phuc Hai
    1540-1546
Quang Hoa
Guang He
1540-1546 Quang Hoa Thong Bao
Guang He Tong Bao

  • Mac Phuc Nguyen
    1546-1561
Vinh Dinh
Yong Ding
1547-1547 Vinh Dinh Thong Bao
Yong Ding Tong Bao

Vinh Dinh Chi Bao
Yong Ding Zhi Bao

Canh Lich
Jing Li
1548-1553

Quang Bao
Guang Bao
1554-1561

  • Successors
    1562-1692




       Ruan Wang     NGUYEN LORD (Dang Trong, Inner Region)

  • Nguyen Hoang
    1600-1613




  • other Lords
    1613-1802




       Zheng Wang     TRINH LORD (Dang Ngoai, Outer Region)

       Xi Shan     TAY SON DYNASTY

  • Nguyen Nhac
    1776-1793
Thai Duc
Tai De
1776-1793 Thai Duc Thong Bao
Tai De Tong Bao

  • Nguyen Hue
    1788-1792
Quang Trung
Guang Zhong
1788-1792 Quang Trung Thong Bao
Guang Zhong Tong Bao

Quang Trung Dai Bao
Guang Zhong Da Bao

  • Nguyen Quang Toan
    1792-1802
Canh Thinh
Jing Chong
1793-1800 Canh Thinh Thong Bao
Jing Chong Tong Bao

Canh Thinh Dai Bao
Jing Chong Da Bao

Bao Hung
Bao Xing
1801-1802 Bao Hung Thong Bao
Bao Xing Tong Bao


VIET NAM     Yue Nan 1802 - 1832 AD
       In 1802 Emperor Gia Long sent Ambassador Le Quang Dinh to China to get approval of the new country name of Nam Viet. Nam was indicated the old land of An Nam and Viet was indicated the new land (the South) of Viet Thuong. The Emperor of China reversed the order of two words Nam Viet into Viet Nam. He did not want to invoke Viet Nam to remember the kingdom of Nam Viet of Trieu Da and to think Kuang-hsi and Kuang Tung belonged to it in the future.
       Ruan     NGUYEN DYNASTY

  • Nguyen The To
    1802-1820
Gia Long
Jia Long
1802-1820 Gia Hung Thong Bao
Jia Xing Tong Bao

Gia Long Thong Bao
Jia Long Tong Bao

  • Nguyen Thanh To
    1820-1840
Minh Mang
Ming Ming
1820-1840 Minh Mang Thong Bao
Ming Ming Tong Bao


DAI NAM     Da Nan 1832 - 1945 AD
       Emperor Minh Mang changed the country name of Viet Nam to Dai Nam. At the end of 20th century the French conquered Dai Nam and signed a Treaty of Protectorate with Nguyen dynasty. The Nguyen court wrote down Dai Nam Quoc on the treaty and the French used the term An Nam in their translation. Later on, the French terms Tonkin and Annam described the Protectorates of North Vietnam and Central Vietnam; and Cochinchina described the Colony of South Vietnam. The entire region of Vietnam, Cambodia and Laos was named Indochine.
       Ruan     NGUYEN DYNASTY

  • Nguyen Thanh To
    1820-1840
Minh Mang
Ming Ming
1820-1840 Minh Mang Thong Bao
Ming Ming Tong Bao

  • Nguyen Hien To
    1841-1847
Thieu Tri
Shao Zhi
1841-1847 Thieu Tri Thong Bao
Shao Zhi Tong Bao

  • Nguyen Duc Tong
    1848-1883
Tu Duc
Si De
1848-1883 Tu Duc Thong Bao
Si De Tong Bao

  • Nguyen Gian Tong
    1883-1884
Kien Phuc
Jian Fu
1883-1884 Kien Phuc Thong Bao
Jian Fu Tong Bao

  • Nguyen Ham Nghi
    1885-1885
Ham Nghi
Xian Yi
1885-1885 Ham Nghi Thong Bao
Xian Yi Tong Bao

  • Nguyen Canh Tong
    1886-1888
Dong Khanh
Tong Qing
1886-1888 Dong Khanh Thong Bao
Tong Qing Tong Bao

  • Nguyen Thanh Thai
    1889-1907
Thanh Thai
Cheng Tai
1889-1907 Thanh Thai Thong Bao
Cheng Tai Tong Bao

  • Nguyen Duy Tan
    1907-1916
Duy Tan
Wei Xin
1907-1916 Duy Tan Thong Bao
Wei Xin Tong Bao

  • Nguyen Hoang Tong
    1916-1925
Khai Dinh
Qi Ding
1916-1925 Khai Dinh Thong Bao
Qi Ding Tong Bao

  • Nguyen Bao Dai
    1926-1945
Bao Dai
Bao Da
1926-1945 Bao Dai Thong Bao
Bao Da Tong Bao


VIETNAM     Yue Nan 1945 AD
       In April, 1945, the first national government was established and headed by Tran Trong Kim, the country name of Vietnam was again changed to Viet Nam.

       Note for numismatists:
For about 30 years from the beginning of 19th century and since 1945 until present time, Vietnam has been known with its current country name VIETNAM. Numismatists sometimes get confused about how to call the coins of Vietnam. Without intention of using "the bad name", one may call ANNAM coin and only mean to differentiate with the coins cast after 1946. Other may call VIETNAM coin or IMPERIAL VIETNAM coin. Note that not all coins were minted by emperors and there were a great amount of coins minted by rebels and people, particularly in period of TRINH NGUYEN. Authors would suggest that the term ANCIENT COIN of VIETNAM when referring to the round coin with square hole of Vietnam is more appropriate.